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Life Sci. 2016 Aug 15;159:20-29. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2016.02.093. Epub 2016 Mar 3.

Role of the endothelin system in sexual dimorphism in cardiovascular and renal diseases.

Author information

1
Cardio-Renal Physiology and Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Egypt.
2
Institute of Biological Sciences and Health, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, MT, Brazil.
3
Cardio-Renal Physiology and Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.
4
Department of Pharmacology, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil. Electronic address: rtostes@usp.br.

Abstract

Epidemiological studies of blood pressure in men and women and in experimental animal models point to substantial sex differences in the occurrence of arterial hypertension as well as in the various manifestations of arterial hypertension, including myocardial infarction, stroke, retinopathy, chronic kidney failure, as well as hypertension-associated diseases (e.g. diabetes mellitus). Increasing evidence demonstrates that the endothelin (ET) system is a major player in the genesis of sex differences in cardiovascular and renal physiology and diseases. Sex differences in the ET system have been described in the vasculature, heart and kidney of humans and experimental animals. In the current review, we briefly describe the role of the ET system in the cardiovascular and renal systems. We also update information on sex differences at different levels of the ET system including synthesis, circulating and tissue levels, receptors, signaling pathways, ET actions, and responses to antagonists in different organs that contribute to blood pressure regulation. Knowledge of the mechanisms underlying sex differences in arterial hypertension can impact therapeutic strategies. Sex-targeted and/or sex-tailored approaches may improve treatment of cardiovascular and renal diseases.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiovascular diseases; Cardiovascular system; Endothelin; Kidney; Sex

PMID:
26939577
PMCID:
PMC4992599
DOI:
10.1016/j.lfs.2016.02.093
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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