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Psychiatr Danub. 2016 Mar;28(1):63-72.

Changes in trait brainwave power and coherence, state and trait anxiety after three-month transcendental meditation (TM) practice.

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Department of Psychology, Centre for Croatian Studies, University of Zagreb, Borongajska cesta 83d, Zagreb, Croatia,



The amount of studies showing different benefits of practicing meditation is growing. EEG brainwave patterns objectively reflect both the cognitive processes and objects of meditation. This study aimed to examine the effects of transcendental meditation (TM) practice on baseline EEG brainwave patterns (outside of meditation) and to examine weather TM reduces state and trait anxiety.


Standard EEG recordings were conducted on volunteer participants (N=12), all students or younger employed people, before and after a three-month meditation training. Artifact-free 100-second epochs were selected and analyzed by Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) analysis. Endlers Multidimensional Anxiety Scales (EMAS) were used to assess anxiety levels. Power (μV(2)) and coherence levels were compared in the alpha, beta, theta and delta frequency band.


Changes in EEG patterns after meditation practice were found mostly in the theta band. An interaction effect was found on the left hemisphere (p<0.10). Theta power decreased on the left, but not on the right hemisphere. Increased theta coherence was found overall and in the central, temporal and occipital areas (p<0.10). Decrease in alpha power was found on channels T3 (p<0.10), O1 (p<0.05) and O2 (p<0.10). An interaction effect was found in the delta frequency band (p<0.06), too. A trend for power decreasing was found on the left, and a trend for power increasing on the right hemisphere. Also, power decreased on channel O1 (p<0.10). In the beta frequency band, a decrease was found on channel O2 (p<0.10). Trait anxiety did not differ, but a decrease in state anxiety and cognitive worry was found (p<0.05).


Obtained results confirm the effects of TM on some baseline EEG brainwave patterns and state anxiety, suggesting that the left hemisphere is more sensitive to meditation practice. Most of the changes were found in the occipital and temporal areas, less in the central and frontal areas. State anxiety decreased after TM practice. Findings suggest TM practice could be helpful in treating different kinds of disorders, especially anxiety disorders.

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