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Nutrients. 2016 Feb 29;8(3):126. doi: 10.3390/nu8030126.

Apple-Derived Pectin Modulates Gut Microbiota, Improves Gut Barrier Function, and Attenuates Metabolic Endotoxemia in Rats with Diet-Induced Obesity.

Author information

  • 1Department of General Surgery, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002, China. jiangtingting08med@163.com.
  • 2Department of General Surgery, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002, China. xuejingao870214@163.com.
  • 3Department of General Surgery, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002, China. wuchao0008@163.com.
  • 4Department of General Surgery, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002, China. tianfeng_nju@163.com.
  • 5Department of General Surgery, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002, China. lqiuchenggd@163.com.
  • 6Department of General Surgery, South Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China. lqiuchenggd@163.com.
  • 7Department of General Surgery, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002, China. ahbijingcheng@163.com.
  • 8State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and MOE Key Laboratory of Model Animal for Disease Study, Model Animal Research Center, Nanjing University, Pukou District, Nanjing 210061, China. xiebx@nicemice.cn.
  • 9State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and MOE Key Laboratory of Model Animal for Disease Study, Model Animal Research Center, Nanjing University, Pukou District, Nanjing 210061, China. wanghy@nicemice.cn.
  • 10State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and MOE Key Laboratory of Model Animal for Disease Study, Model Animal Research Center, Nanjing University, Pukou District, Nanjing 210061, China. schen6@163.com.
  • 11Department of General Surgery, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002, China. wxinying@263.net.

Abstract

This study was aimed at determining potential effects of apple-derived pectin on weight gain, gut microbiota, gut barrier and metabolic endotoxemia in rat models of diet-induced obesity. The rats received a standard diet (control; Chow group; n = 8) or a high-fat diet (HFD; n = 32) for eight weeks to induce obesity. The top 50th percentile of weight-gainers were selected as diet induced obese rats. Thereafter, the Chow group continued on chow, and the diet induced obese rats were randomly divided into two groups and received HFD (HF group; n = 8) or pectin-supplemented HFD (HF-P group; n = 8) for six weeks. Compared to the HF group, the HF-P group showed attenuated weight gain (207.38 ± 7.96 g vs. 283.63 ± 10.17 g, p < 0.01) and serum total cholesterol level (1.46 ± 0.13 mmol/L vs. 2.06 ± 0.26 mmol/L, p < 0.01). Compared to the Chow group, the HF group showed a decrease in Bacteroidetes phylum and an increase in Firmicutes phylum, as well as subordinate categories (p < 0.01). These changes were restored to the normal levels in the HF-P group. Furthermore, compared to the HF group, the HF-P group displayed improved intestinal alkaline phosphatase (0.57 ± 0.20 vs. 0.30 ± 0.19, p < 0.05) and claudin 1 (0.76 ± 0.14 vs. 0.55 ± 0.18, p < 0.05) expression, and decreased Toll-like receptor 4 expression in ileal tissue (0.76 ± 0.58 vs. 2.04 ± 0.89, p < 0.01). The HF-P group also showed decreased inflammation (TNFα: 316.13 ± 7.62 EU/mL vs. 355.59 ± 8.10 EU/mL, p < 0.01; IL-6: 51.78 ± 2.35 EU/mL vs. 58.98 ± 2.59 EU/mL, p < 0.01) and metabolic endotoxemia (2.83 ± 0.42 EU/mL vs. 0.68 ± 0.14 EU/mL, p < 0.01). These results suggest that apple-derived pectin could modulate gut microbiota, attenuate metabolic endotoxemia and inflammation, and consequently suppress weight gain and fat accumulation in diet induced obese rats.

KEYWORDS:

apple-derived pectin; gut barrier function; gut microbiota; metabolic endotoxemia; obesity

PMID:
26938554
PMCID:
PMC4808856
DOI:
10.3390/nu8030126
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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