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Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016 Apr;21(2):94-9. doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2016.02.004. Epub 2016 Feb 28.

Maternal microbiome - A pathway to preterm birth.

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Department of Paediatrics, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA; Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, USA.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute for the Health of Women and Children, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Genes and Environment, Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.


Despite great medical advances in preventing maternal and infant mortality in the past century, one issue remains unresolved: why do so many women give birth prematurely? A major new field of human microbiome studies has begun to shed light on the impact of microbes (of both the commensal and pathogen varieties) on pregnancy outcomes. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing and metagenomic analysis have revealed that maternal microbiomes at a variety of niches including the oral, vaginal, gut, cervical, and even the placenta itself govern pregnancy outcomes. In this review, we describe how alterations in the microbial biomasses impact preterm birth and we discuss the major research questions concerning the cause and/or interdependent relationships between microbiome, infection, and preterm delivery.


Commensal flora; Infection; Inflammation; Metagenomics; Microbiome; Preterm birth

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