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Pharmacogn Mag. 2015 Oct;11(Suppl 3):S427-33. doi: 10.4103/0973-1296.168982.

Toxicological Evaluation of Emblica officinalis Fruit Extract and its Anti-inflammatory and Free Radical Scavenging Properties.

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Department of Biotechnology, Maharani Lakshmi Ammanni College for Women, Malleswarm, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
Department of Biotechnology, Bamboo Technology, Bodoland University, Kokrajhar, BTAD, Assam, India.
Department of Biochemistry, CPGS, Jain College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
Department of Biochemistry, Maharani Lakshmi Ammanni College for Women, Malleswarm, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
Department of Biotechnology, Sapthagiri College of Engineering, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
Heymans Institute of Pharmacology, Ghent University, Belgium.



Emblica officinalis (Euphorbiaceae), popularly known as Indian gooseberry or "Amla" in India, is used in Ayurveda as "rejuvenating herb" since ancient times.


This study was carried out to estimate toxicity, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative activities of the methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis fruit (MEO) in an animal model.


Antioxidative property of MEO was assessed by in vitro assays such as phosphomolybdenum assay (total antioxidant capacity), free radical scavenging assays 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis and 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (DPPH and ABTS method) and lipid peroxidation assay (LPO). The anti-inflammatory property was evaluated by carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats by measuring rat paw volume at different time intervals and toxicological analysis using mice.


High performance liquid chromatography studies revealed the presence of gallic acid (2.10%), mucic acid (4.90%), ellagic acid (2.10%), quercetin (28.00%), rutin (3.89%), and β-glucogallin (1.46%). MEO showed highest antioxidant activities by using DPPH (17.33-89.00%), ABTS (23.03-94.16%), nitric oxide scavenging activity (12.94-70.16%), LPO (56.54%), and phosphomolybdenum assay (142 ± 6.09 μg/ml). The LD50 was found to be approximately 1125 mg/kg (p.o). High dose of MEO showed significant reduction (72.71%) in the inflammation after 4 h of treatment, which was comparable to diclofenac (10 mg/kg) (61.57%) treated group. Significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α) markers were also observed (57.25% and 35.41%, respectively) in serum of MEO treated animals as compared to control.


Taken together, phenolic compounds of MEO may serve as a potential herbal drug for amelioration of acute inflammation due to their modulatory action on free radicals.


The methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis fruit (MEO) has potent antioxidant activity as assessed by DPPH, ABTS and LPO assaysMEO has potent anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema modelThe phenolic compounds of MEO might be a potential herbal drug for amelioration of acute inflammation. Abbreviations used: ROS, reactive oxygen species; RNS, reactive nitrogen species, LPO, lipid peroxidation, NO, nitric oxide, IL, interleukin; TNF α tumor necrosis factor alpha; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs; AA, ascorbic acid; MEO, methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis fruit; ABTS+; 2,2' azino bis 3 ethylbenzthiazoline 6 sulphonic acid; DPPH, 1,1 diphenyl 2 picrylhydrazyl; HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography; MDA, malondialdehyde; DMSO, dimethyl sulphoxide; ELISA, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.


1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; Emblica officinalis; acute inflammation; amla; antioxidant; high performance liquid chromatography

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