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Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Feb 26;13(3). pii: E264. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13030264.

Co-Formulants in Glyphosate-Based Herbicides Disrupt Aromatase Activity in Human Cells below Toxic Levels.

Author information

1
Institute of Biology, University of Caen Normandy, EA2608 and Network on Risks, Quality and Sustainable Environment MRSH, Esplanade de la Paix, CS 14032, Caen Cedex 5, France. nicolas.defarge@gmail.com.
2
CRIIGEN, 81 rue Monceau, 75008 Paris, France. nicolas.defarge@gmail.com.
3
Agro-Environmental Research Institute, National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre, H-1022, Herman Ottó u. 15, Budapest, Hungary. e.takacs@cfri.hu.
4
Institute of Biology, University of Caen Normandy, EA2608 and Network on Risks, Quality and Sustainable Environment MRSH, Esplanade de la Paix, CS 14032, Caen Cedex 5, France. veritol77@gmail.com.
5
Institute of Biology, University of Caen Normandy, EA2608 and Network on Risks, Quality and Sustainable Environment MRSH, Esplanade de la Paix, CS 14032, Caen Cedex 5, France. robinmes@gmail.com.
6
CRIIGEN, 81 rue Monceau, 75008 Paris, France. robinmes@gmail.com.
7
CRIIGEN, 81 rue Monceau, 75008 Paris, France. jmspiroux@wanadoo.fr.
8
Institute of Biology, University of Caen Normandy, EA2608 and Network on Risks, Quality and Sustainable Environment MRSH, Esplanade de la Paix, CS 14032, Caen Cedex 5, France. gilles-eric.seralini@unicaen.fr.
9
CRIIGEN, 81 rue Monceau, 75008 Paris, France. gilles-eric.seralini@unicaen.fr.
10
Agro-Environmental Research Institute, National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre, H-1022, Herman Ottó u. 15, Budapest, Hungary. a.szekacs@cfri.hu.

Abstract

Pesticide formulations contain declared active ingredients and co-formulants presented as inert and confidential compounds. We tested the endocrine disruption of co-formulants in six glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH), the most used pesticides worldwide. All co-formulants and formulations were comparably cytotoxic well below the agricultural dilution of 1% (18-2000 times for co-formulants, 8-141 times for formulations), and not the declared active ingredient glyphosate (G) alone. The endocrine-disrupting effects of all these compounds were measured on aromatase activity, a key enzyme in the balance of sex hormones, below the toxicity threshold. Aromatase activity was decreased both by the co-formulants alone (polyethoxylated tallow amine-POEA and alkyl polyglucoside-APG) and by the formulations, from concentrations 800 times lower than the agricultural dilutions; while G exerted an effect only at 1/3 of the agricultural dilution. It was demonstrated for the first time that endocrine disruption by GBH could not only be due to the declared active ingredient but also to co-formulants. These results could explain numerous in vivo results with GBHs not seen with G alone; moreover, they challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) value for GBHs exposures, currently calculated from toxicity tests of the declared active ingredient alone.

KEYWORDS:

JEG3 cells; aromatase; co-formulant; endocrine disruption; glyphosate-based herbicide; pesticide

PMID:
26927151
PMCID:
PMC4808927
DOI:
10.3390/ijerph13030264
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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