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Sensors (Basel). 2016 Feb 24;16(3):280. doi: 10.3390/s16030280.

An Accurate GPS-IMU/DR Data Fusion Method for Driverless Car Based on a Set of Predictive Models and Grid Constraints.

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory of Intelligent Technology and Systems, Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. sy-wang14@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn.
2
State Key Laboratory of Intelligent Technology and Systems, Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. michael@tsinghua.edu.cn.
3
State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030, China. yk115@cqu.edu.cn.

Abstract

A high-performance differential global positioning system (GPS)  receiver with real time kinematics provides absolute localization for driverless cars. However, it is not only susceptible to multipath effect but also unable to effectively fulfill precise error correction in a wide range of driving areas. This paper proposes an accurate GPS-inertial measurement unit (IMU)/dead reckoning (DR) data fusion method based on a set of predictive models and occupancy grid constraints. First, we employ a set of autoregressive and moving average (ARMA) equations that have different structural parameters to build maximum likelihood models of raw navigation. Second, both grid constraints and spatial consensus checks on all predictive results and current measurements are required to have removal of outliers. Navigation data that satisfy stationary stochastic process are further fused to achieve accurate localization results. Third, the standard deviation of multimodal data fusion can be pre-specified by grid size. Finally, we perform a lot of field tests on a diversity of real urban scenarios. The experimental results demonstrate that the method can significantly smooth small jumps in bias and considerably reduce accumulated position errors due to DR. With low computational complexity, the position accuracy of our method surpasses existing state-of-the-arts on the same dataset and the new data fusion method is practically applied in our driverless car.

KEYWORDS:

GPS-IMU/DR integrated navigation; driverless car; local navigation; maximum likelihood estimation; multimodal data fusion

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