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Virusdisease. 2016 Mar;27(1):77-83. doi: 10.1007/s13337-016-0303-2. Epub 2016 Feb 3.

Prevalence of rotavirus, norovirus and enterovirus in diarrheal diseases in Himachal Pradesh, India.

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Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat, Solan, 173234 Himachal Pradesh India.
Department of Pediatrics, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh India.


Diarrheal diseases are responsible for a significant proportion of mortality and morbidity all around the globe. The contribution of viruses to gastroenteritis incidences in humans is well established. In the present study, we have studied the prevalence of rotavirus, norovirus and enterovirus in Himachal Pradesh, a north Indian state. A total of 287 (111 children and 176 adults) stool samples of gastroenteritis patients were screened for the viruses using RT-PCR method. 34.5 % samples were positive for the viral pathogens of gastroenteritis. Rotavirus was the predominant virus detected in the study with 49.5 and 14.8 % positivity in children and adults, respectively. Enterovirus was present in 5.6 % cases whereas norovirus had least prevalence (1.4 %). Co infection (rotavirus and enterovirus) was witnessed at the prevalence rate of 0.6 %. Among different age groups, the prevalence of studied viruses was highest in the children belonging to the age groups of <5 years. Rotavirus infections were found to be significantly associated with vomiting and trend of higher rates of fever and dehydration was seen in children along with diarrhea. Seasonal distribution shows circulation of diarrheagenic viruses throughout the year. This is the first report of prevalence of various diarrheagenic viruses circulating in this region. The outcome of the study from this cohort provides a baseline data which can be used to design the preventive strategies in the otherwise unexplored state of Himachal Pradesh.


Diarrhea; Enterovirus; Norovirus; RT-PCR; Rotavirus; Viral Gastroenteritis

[Available on 2017-03-01]

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