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J Genet Genomics. 2016 Feb 20;43(2):63-75. doi: 10.1016/j.jgg.2016.01.001. Epub 2016 Jan 18.

Recent Progress in CRISPR/Cas9 Technology.

Author information

1
Beijing Institutes of Life Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049, China.
2
Beijing Institutes of Life Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.
3
Institute of Genomic Medicine, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, China.
4
Beijing Institutes of Life Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; Institute of Genomic Medicine, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, China. Electronic address: sunzs@mail.biols.ac.cn.
5
Department of Psychology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130021, China. Electronic address: juxd513@nenu.edu.cn.

Abstract

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system, a simple and efficient tool for genome editing, has experienced rapid progress in its technology and applicability in the past two years. Here, we review the recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9 technology and the ways that have been adopted to expand our capacity for precise genome manipulation. First, we introduce the mechanism of CRISPR/Cas9, including its biochemical and structural implications. Second, we highlight the latest improvements in the CRISPR/Cas9 system, especially Cas9 protein modifications for customization. Third, we review its current applications, in which the versatile CRISPR/Cas9 system was employed to edit the genome, epigenome, or RNA of various organisms. Although CRISPR/Cas9 allows convenient genome editing accompanied by many benefits, we should not ignore the significant ethical and biosafety concerns that it raises. Finally, we discuss the prospective applications and challenges of several promising techniques adapted from CRISPR/Cas9.

KEYWORDS:

CRISPR/Cas9; Epigenome editing; Genome editing; RNA editing

PMID:
26924689
DOI:
10.1016/j.jgg.2016.01.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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