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J Youth Adolesc. 2017 Jan;46(1):91-103. doi: 10.1007/s10964-016-0451-0. Epub 2016 Feb 29.

Interaction of Biological Stress Recovery and Cognitive Vulnerability for Depression in Adolescence.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, Temple University, 1701 N. 13th St., Philadelphia, PA, 19122, USA. bshapero@mgh.harvard.edu.
2
Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, One Bowdoin Square, 6th Floor, Boston, MA, 02114, USA. bshapero@mgh.harvard.edu.
3
Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. bshapero@mgh.harvard.edu.
4
Department of Psychology, Temple University, 1701 N. 13th St., Philadelphia, PA, 19122, USA.
5
Neuroscience Program, Temple University, 1701 N. 13th St., Philadelphia, PA, 19122, USA.
6
Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1201 W. Johnson St., Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

Abstract

Major Depressive Disorder is a common mental illness with rates increasing during adolescence. This has led researchers to examine developmental antecedents of depression. This study examined the association between depressive symptoms and the interaction between two empirically supported risk factors for depression: poor recovery of the biological stress system as measured through heart rate and cortisol, and cognitive vulnerabilities as indexed by rumination and a negative cognitive style. Adolescents (n = 127; 49 % female) completed questionnaires and a social stress task to elicit a stress response measured with neuroendocrine (cortisol) and autonomic nervous system (heart rate) endpoints. The findings indicated that higher depressive symptoms were associated with the combination of higher cognitive vulnerabilities and lower cortisol and heart rate recovery. These findings can enhance our understanding of stress responses, lead to personalized treatment, and provide a nuanced understanding of depression in adolescence.

KEYWORDS:

Adolescence; Cognitive vulnerability; Cortisol; Depression; Heart rate; Recovery

PMID:
26923989
PMCID:
PMC5003774
DOI:
10.1007/s10964-016-0451-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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