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Adv Immunol. 2016;130:95-190. doi: 10.1016/bs.ai.2015.12.002. Epub 2016 Jan 29.

Immune Contexture, Immunoscore, and Malignant Cell Molecular Subgroups for Prognostic and Theranostic Classifications of Cancers.

Author information

1
INSERM UMR_S 1138, Cancer, Immune Control and Escape, Cordeliers Research Centre, Paris, France; Université Paris-Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR_S 1338, Cordeliers Research Centre, Paris, France; Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR_S 1138, Cordeliers Research Centre, Paris, France.
2
Programme Cartes d'Identité des Tumeurs, Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer, Paris, France.
3
Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite; INSERM, UMR-S1147, Paris, France.
4
INSERM, UMR-1162, Génomique fonctionnelle des tumeurs solides, Paris, France.
5
INSERM UMR_S 1138, Cancer, Immune Control and Escape, Cordeliers Research Centre, Paris, France; Université Paris-Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR_S 1338, Cordeliers Research Centre, Paris, France; Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR_S 1138, Cordeliers Research Centre, Paris, France. Electronic address: herve.fridman@crc.jussieu.fr.

Abstract

The outcome of tumors results from genetic and epigenetic modifications of the transformed cells and also from the interactions of the malignant cells with their tumor microenvironment (TME), which includes immune and inflammatory cells. For a given cancer type, the composition of the immunological TME is not homogeneous. Heterogeneity is found between different cancer types and also between tumors from patients with the same type of cancer. Some tumors exhibit a poor infiltration by immune cells, and others are highly infiltrated by lymphocytes. Among the latter, the architecture of the TME, with the localization of immune cells in the invasive front and the center of the tumor, the presence of tumor-adjacent organized lymphoid aggregates, and the type of inflammatory context, determines the prognostic impact of the infiltrating cells. The description and the understanding of the immune and inflammatory landscape in human tumors are of paramount importance at different levels of patient's care. It completes the mutational, transcriptional, and epigenetic patterns of the malignant cells and open paths to understand how tumor cells shape their immune microenvironment and are shaped by the immune reaction. It provides prognostic and theranostic markers, as well as novel targets for immunotherapies.

KEYWORDS:

Cancer molecular subgroups; Colorectal cancer; Immune contexture; Renal cell cancer; Tumor microenvironment

PMID:
26923001
DOI:
10.1016/bs.ai.2015.12.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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