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J Am Coll Surg. 2016 Mar;222(3):269-280.e10. doi: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2015.12.009. Epub 2015 Dec 18.

Roles of Sphincter of Oddi Laxity in Bile Duct Microenvironment in Patients with Cholangiolithiasis: From the Perspective of the Microbiome and Metabolome.

Author information

1
Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Zhejiang University, Guangzhou, China.
2
Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.
3
Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address: shirleybai57@hotmail.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Bile duct microenvironment plays several key roles in cholangiolithiasis occurrence. Sphincter of Oddi laxity (SOL) is associated with cholangiolithiasis, probably due to enhanced reflux of intestinal contents that changes the microenvironment. However, the microenvironment has not been investigated comprehensively.

STUDY DESIGN:

Patients with cholangiolithiasis were consecutively recruited and their bile was collected intraoperatively for high-throughput experiments. Pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene was performed to characterize the microbiota in the bile. A liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based method was used to profile bile composition. Clinical manifestation, microbiome, and bile composition were compared between patients with and without SOL.

RESULTS:

Eighteen patients with SOL and 27 patients without SOL were finally included. Patients with SOL showed more severe inflammation. Bacteria in the bile duct were overwhelmingly aerobes and facultative anaerobes. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most widespread phylotypes, especially Enterobacteriaceae. Compared with those without SOL, patients with SOL possessed more varied microbiota. In the SOL group, pathobionts, such as Bilophila and Shewanella algae had richer communities, and harmless bacteria were reduced. Metabolomics analysis showed the differences in bile composition between groups were mainly distributed in lipids and bile acids. Particularly, the increased abundance of Bilophila involved in taurine metabolism was associated with reduced contents of taurine derivatives in the bile of patients with SOL.

CONCLUSIONS:

A bile duct microenvironment with more severe bacterial infection and stronger lithogenicity was found in patients with SOL. The findings suggest a possible mechanism of cholangiolithiasis and provide the basis for future strategies for prevention of cholangiolithiasis recurrence.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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