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Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 Aug;18(8):1733-9. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntw040. Epub 2016 Feb 26.

Tobacco Cessation Behaviors Among Older Homeless Adults: Results From the HOPE HOME Study.

Author information

1
Division of General Internal Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA Maya.Vijayaraghavan@ucsf.edu.
2
Division of General Internal Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Tobacco-attributable deaths contribute significantly to the increased mortality observed among homeless adults aged 50 years or more. Little is known about the epidemiology of tobacco use among older homeless individuals. This longitudinal cohort study examines smoking behaviors and factors associated with smoking cessation among homeless individuals aged 50 years or more.

METHODS:

We recruited a prospective cohort of 350 homeless individuals sampled from the community in Oakland, California. At 6 months follow-up, participants reported their cigarette quit attempts and 30-day abstinence. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine factors associated with making a quit attempt at follow-up, hypothesizing that heavier smokers would be less likely to make a quit attempt.

RESULTS:

Of the 272 ever-smokers, 229 (84.2%) were current smokers (quit ratio 15.8). Among current smokers at enrollment who had a follow-up interview at 6 months, 43.6% (n = 71) reported making a quit attempt during the follow-up. Of those who reported making a quit attempt, 14.3% (n = 10) reported 30-day abstinence at follow-up. Among those who had reported making a quit attempt at follow-up, 22.5% had used nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Staying in shelters (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-5.8) was associated with higher odds of making a quit attempt at follow-up. Higher cigarette consumption was associated with lower odds of making a quit attempt (AOR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.8-0.9).

CONCLUSIONS:

In this study of tobacco use in older homeless adults, rates of quit attempts were similar to that observed in the general population, but successful quitting was lower.

IMPLICATIONS:

The current study is among the first studies to focus specifically on tobacco use and cessation behaviors among older homeless adults. The high prevalence of smoking and the low rates of successful quitting highlight numerous opportunities to intervene to increase quitting rates among this population. Among these, increasing access to smoke-free living environments and identifying effective cessation therapies will be critical to reducing tobacco-related disease burden among older homeless adults.

PMID:
26920648
PMCID:
PMC4941600
DOI:
10.1093/ntr/ntw040
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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