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Brain Tumor Pathol. 2016 Apr;33(2):89-96. doi: 10.1007/s10014-016-0255-7. Epub 2016 Feb 26.

Blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier in normal and pathological conditions.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology and Host Defense, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa, 761-0793, Japan. masaueno@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp.
2
Department of Pathology and Host Defense, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa, 761-0793, Japan.

Abstract

Blood-borne substances can invade into the extracellular spaces of the brain via endothelial cells in sites without the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and can travel through the interstitial fluid (ISF) of the brain parenchyma adjacent to non-BBB sites. It has been shown that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains directly into the blood via the arachnoid villi and also into lymph nodes via the subarachnoid spaces of the brain, while ISF drains into the cervical lymph nodes through perivascular drainage pathways. In addition, the glymphatic pathway of fluids, characterized by para-arterial pathways, aquaporin4-dependent passage through astroglial cytoplasm, interstitial spaces, and paravenous routes, has been established. Meningeal lymphatic vessels along the superior sagittal sinus were very recently discovered. It is known that, in mice, blood-borne substances can be transferred to areas with intact BBB function, such as the medial regions of the hippocampus, presumably through leaky vessels in non-BBB sites. In the present paper, we review the clearance mechanisms of interstitial substances, such as amyloid-β peptides, as well as summarize models of BBB deterioration in response to different types of insults, including acute ischemia followed by reperfusion, hypertension, and chronic hypoperfusion. Lastly, we discuss the relationship between perivascular clearance and brain disorders.

KEYWORDS:

Blood–brain barrier; Blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier; Glymphatic pathway; Perivascular drainage pathway

PMID:
26920424
DOI:
10.1007/s10014-016-0255-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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