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Gastroenterology. 2016 Jun;150(8):1756-68. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2016.02.035. Epub 2016 Feb 23.

Linking Pathogenic Mechanisms of Alcoholic Liver Disease With Clinical Phenotypes.

Author information

1
Department of Pathobiology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio; Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio; Department of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. Electronic address: nagyL3@ccf.org.
2
Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas.
3
Department of Pathobiology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio; Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio; Department of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.
4
Department of Pathobiology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio; Department of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.
5
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Electronic address: shah.vijay@mayo.edu.

Abstract

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) develops in approximately 20% of alcoholic patients, with a higher prevalence in females. ALD progression is marked by fatty liver and hepatocyte necrosis, as well as apoptosis, inflammation, regenerating nodules, fibrosis, and cirrhosis.(1) ALD develops via a complex process involving parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells, as well as recruitment of other cell types to the liver in response to damage and inflammation. Hepatocytes are damaged by ethanol, via generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Hepatocyte cell death via apoptosis and necrosis are markers of ethanol-induced liver injury. We review the mechanisms by which alcohol injures hepatocytes and the response of hepatic sinusoidal cells to alcohol-induced injury. We also discuss how recent insights into the pathogenesis of ALD will affect the treatment and management of patients.

KEYWORDS:

Alcoholic Hepatitis; Alcoholic Liver Disease; Hepatic Stellate Cell

PMID:
26919968
PMCID:
PMC4887335
DOI:
10.1053/j.gastro.2016.02.035
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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