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Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2016 Feb;9(2):103-11. doi: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.01.014. Epub 2016 Jan 11.

Anti-Alzheimer's disease potential of coumarins from Angelica decursiva and Artemisia capillaris and structure-activity analysis.

Author information

1
Department of Food and Life Science, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737, Republic of Korea.
2
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: jungha@jbnu.ac.kr.
3
Angiogenesis & Chinese Medicine Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
4
Department of Food and Life Science, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: choijs@pknu.ac.kr.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To use structure-activity analysis to study the anti-Alzheimer's disease (anti-AD) activity of natural coumarins isolated from Angelica decursiva and Artemisia capillaris, along with one purchased coumarin (daphnetin).

METHODS:

Umbelliferone, umbelliferone 6-carboxylic acid, scopoletin, isoscopoletin, 7-methoxy coumarin, scoparone, scopolin, and esculetin have been previously isolated; however 2'-isopropyl psoralene was isolated from Angelica decursiva for the first time to evaluate their inhibitory effects against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) enzyme activity. We scrutinized the potentials of coumarins as cholinesterase and BACE1 inhibitors via enzyme kinetics and molecular docking simulation.

RESULTS:

Among the test compounds, umbelliferone 6-carboxylic acid, esculetin and daphnetin exhibited potent inhibitory activity against AChE, BChE and BACE1. Both esculetin and daphnetin have a catechol group and exhibit significant anti-AD activity against AChE and BChE. In contrast, presence of a sugar moiety and methoxylation markedly reduced the anti-AD activity of the coumarins investigated in this study. With respect to BACE1 inhibition, umbelliferone 6-carboxylic acid, esculetin and daphnetin contained carboxyl or catechol groups, which significantly contributed to their anti-AD activities. To further investigate these results, we generated a 3D structure of BACE1 using Autodock 4.2 and simulated binding of umbelliferone 6-carboxylic acid, esculetin and daphnetin. Docking simulations showed that different residues of BACE1 interacted with hydroxyl and carboxylic groups, and the binding energies of umbelliferone 6-carboxylic acid, esculetin and daphnetin were negative (-4.58, -6.25 and -6.37 kcal/mol respectively).

CONCLUSIONS:

Taken together, our results suggest that umbelliferone 6-carboxylic acid, esculetin and daphnetin have anti-AD effects by inhibiting AChE, BChE and BACE1, which might be useful against AD.

KEYWORDS:

BACE1; Cholinesterase; Coumarins; Daphnetin; Esculetin; Umbelliferone 6-carboxylic acid

PMID:
26919937
DOI:
10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.01.014
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