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J Thorac Imaging. 1989 Oct;4(4):67-70.

Interventions in pulmonary embolism.

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Department of Radiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock 72205.


Various interventions are available to assist in the management of patients with pulmonary embolism. Most are reserved for patients who either fail standard systemic anticoagulation therapy or are not candidates for anticoagulant therapy. The most common intervention is placement of a vena caval filter. Several different filter devices are available, most of which may be placed percutaneously. Pulmonary thrombolysis with urokinase or streptokinase may be appropriate in some patients with severe, symptomatic pulmonary embolism. Finally, pulmonary embolectomy by means of either a transvenous catheter or surgical technique may be necessary in cases of refractory cardiovascular collapse.

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