Send to

Choose Destination
Ann Lab Med. 2016 May;36(3):223-9. doi: 10.3343/alm.2016.36.3.223.

Plasma Levels and Diagnostic Utility of Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor, Matrix Metalloproteinase-9, and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 as New Biomarkers of Breast Cancer.

Author information

Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, Medical University, Białystok, Poland.
Laboratory of Esthetic Medicine, Medical University, Białystok, Poland.
Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, Medical University, Białystok, Poland.
Department of HaematologicalDiagnostics, Medical University, Białystok, Poland.



Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and its specific tissue inhibitor - tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) may play an important role in the pathogenesis and spread of cancer. We investigated the plasma levels of M-CSF, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 in comparison with a commonly accepted tumor marker CA 15-3 in breast cancer patients and in control groups.


The cohort included 110 breast cancer patients in groups at stages I-IV. The control group consisted of 50 healthy volunteers and 50 benign tumor patients. Plasma levels of M-CSF, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 were determined by using ELISA, while CA 15-3 concentrations were determined by using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA).


The results showed significant differences in concentrations of the analyzed parameters and in levels of CA 15-3 between the groups of breast cancer patients and the two control groups. Diagnosis using these markers was equal to that using CA 15-3 in terms of sensitivity, predictive values of positive and negativetest results (PPV, NPV) and area under the ROC curve (AUC) in the studied groups. The diagnostic specificities of MMP-9, TIMP-1, M-CSF, and CA 15-3 showed equally high values (95%). The combined use of all tested parameters with CA 15-3 resulted in increased sensitivity, NPV, and AUC, especially in the combination of M-CSF with tumor markers (76%, 64%, and 0.8653).


These findings suggest the tested parameters are useful in the diagnosis of breast cancer patients (except stage I), when combined with CA 15-3.


Breast cancer; CA 15-3; M-CSF; MMP-9; TIMP-1

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center