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J Diet Suppl. 2016 Nov;13(6):660-93. doi: 10.3109/19390211.2016.1144231. Epub 2016 Feb 25.

Adulterated and Counterfeit Male Enhancement Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements Pose a Real Threat to the Management of Erectile Dysfunction: A Global Perspective.

Author information

1
a Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics , Alexandria University , Alexandria , Egypt.
2
b Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics , Benghazi University , Benghazi , Libya.
3
c Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences , Appalachian College of Pharmacy , Oakwood , VA , USA.

Abstract

Erectile dysfunction prevalence globally is noticeably high. This is accompanied by an increase in the use of nutraceuticals for male enhancement. However, the global market is invaded by counterfeit and adulterated nutraceuticals claimed to be of natural origin sold with a therapeutic claim. The objective of this article is to review male enhancement nutraceuticals worldwide with respect to claim, adulterants, and safety. The definition of such products is variable across countries. Thus, the registration procedures differ as well. This facilitates the manipulation of the process, which leads to widespread adulterated and counterfeit products without control. The tele-advertisement and Internet pharmacies aided the widespread sale of male enhancement nutraceuticals, unfortunately, the spurious ones. Finally, based on literature, most of these products were found to be adulterated with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and mislabeled as being natural. These products represent a major health hazard for consumers due to lack of clear regulations.

KEYWORDS:

adulteration; male enhancement; safety; sildenafil

PMID:
26913542
DOI:
10.3109/19390211.2016.1144231
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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