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Sci Rep. 2016 Feb 25;6:21871. doi: 10.1038/srep21871.

Metatranscriptomics reveals temperature-driven functional changes in microbiome impacting cheese maturation rate.

Author information

1
Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Via Università 100, 80055 Portici, Italy.
2
Biosciences Division (BIO), Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA.
3
Departmen of Ecology &Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
4
Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
5
Institute for Genomic and Systems Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
6
The Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA, USA.

Abstract

Traditional cheeses harbour complex microbial consortia that play an important role in shaping typical sensorial properties. However, the microbial metabolism is considered difficult to control. Microbial community succession and the related gene expression were analysed during ripening of a traditional Italian cheese, identifying parameters that could be modified to accelerate ripening. Afterwards, we modulated ripening conditions and observed consistent changes in microbial community structure and function. We provide concrete evidence of the essential contribution of non-starter lactic acid bacteria in ripening-related activities. An increase in the ripening temperature promoted the expression of genes related to proteolysis, lipolysis and amino acid/lipid catabolism and significantly increases the cheese maturation rate. Moreover, temperature-promoted microbial metabolisms were consistent with the metabolomic profiles of proteins and volatile organic compounds in the cheese. The results clearly indicate how processing-driven microbiome responses can be modulated in order to optimize production efficiency and product quality.

PMID:
26911915
PMCID:
PMC4766472
DOI:
10.1038/srep21871
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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