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Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016 Mar;137(3):952-61. doi: 10.1097/

Mutation Screening of Candidate Genes in Patients with Nonsyndromic Sagittal Craniosynostosis.

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New York and Albany, N.Y.; University Park, Pa.; Iowa City, Iowa; Wuhan, People's Republic of China; and Paris and Pessac, France From the Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai; the Congenital Malformations Registry, New York State Department of Health; the Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University; the Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa; the State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University; the Department of Pediatric Hematology, Robert Debré Hospital; and Université de Bordeaux, UMR5199 PACEA, Bordeaux Archaeological Sciences Cluster of Excellence.



Craniosynostosis is a condition that includes the premature fusion of one or multiple cranial sutures. Among various craniosynostosis forms, sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis is the most prevalent. Although different gene mutations have been identified in some craniosynostosis syndromes, the cause of sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis remains largely unknown.


To screen for candidate genes for sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis, the authors sequenced DNA of 93 sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis patients from a population-based study conducted in Iowa and New York states. FGFR1-3 mutational hotspots and the entire TWIST1, RAB23, and BMP2 coding regions were screened because of their known roles in human nonsyndromic or syndromic sagittal craniosynostosis, expression patterns, and/or animal model studies.


The authors identified two rare variants in their cohort. A FGFR1 insertion c.730_731insG, which led to a premature stop codon, was predicted to abolish the entire immunoglobulin-like III domain, including the ligand-binding region. A c.439C>G variant was observed in TWIST1 at its highly conserved loop domain in another patient. The patient's mother harbored the same variant and was reported with jaw abnormalities. These two variants were not detected in 116 alleles from unaffected controls or seen in the several databases; however, TWIST1 variant was found in a low frequency of 0.000831 percent in Exome Aggregation Consortium database.


The low mutation detection rate indicates that these genes account for only a small proportion of sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis patients. The authors' results add to the perception that sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis is a complex developmental defect with considerable genetic heterogeneity.


Risk, II.

[Available on 2017-03-01]
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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