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J Infect Dis. 2016 May 1;213 Suppl 3:S131-5. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv767. Epub 2016 Feb 21.

Contribution of Environmental Surveillance Toward Interruption of Poliovirus Transmission in Nigeria, 2012-2015.

Author information

1
World Health Organization, Country Representative Office, Abuja, Nigeria.
2
World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Congo.
3
National Primary Health Care Development Agency, Abuja.
4
University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
5
Global Public Health Solutions, Atlanta, Georgia.
6
World Health organization, Head Quarters, Geneva, Switzerland.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cases of paralysis caused by poliovirus have decreased by >99% since the 1988 World Health Assembly's resolution to eradicate polio. The World Health Organization identified environmental surveillance (ES) of poliovirus in the poliomyelitis eradication strategic plan as an activity that can complement acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. This article summarizes key public health interventions that followed the isolation of polioviruses from ES between 2012 and 2015.

METHODS:

The grap method was used to collect 1.75 L of raw flowing sewage every 2-4 weeks. Once collected, samples were shipped at 4 °C to a polio laboratory for concentration. ES data were then used to guide program implementation.

RESULTS:

From 2012 to 2015, ES reported 97 circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV2) and 14 wild polioviruses. In 2014 alone, 54 cVDPV type 2 cases and 1 WPV type 1 case were reported. In Sokoto State, 58 cases of AFP were found from a search of 9426 households. A total of 2 252 059 inactivated polio vaccine and 2 460 124 oral polio vaccine doses were administered to children aged <5 year in Borno and Yobe states.

CONCLUSIONS:

This article is among the first from Africa that relates ES findings to key public health interventions (mass immunization campaigns, inactivated polio vaccine introduction, and strengthening of AFP surveillance) that have contributed to the interruption of poliovirus transmission in Nigeria.

KEYWORDS:

circulating vaccine derived poliovirus; environmental surveillance; poliovirus; sewage; wild poliovirus

PMID:
26908747
PMCID:
PMC4818559
DOI:
10.1093/infdis/jiv767
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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