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Ren Fail. 2016;38(4):530-44. doi: 10.3109/0886022X.2016.1148523. Epub 2016 Feb 24.

Serum tumor markers in chronic kidney disease: as clinical tool in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of cancers.

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a Division of Nephrology, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Faculty of Medicine (Poursina) , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.


Cancer is singled out as the biggest cause of death in the world, predicted to reach 13.1 million cancer-related deaths by the year 2030. Although there are no specific tumor markers used in cancer screening, some markers can be used to assist in making a diagnosis and determining a prognosis. They can be used to follow in cases where the diagnosis is cancer through monitoring of the disease recurrence and/or evaluating the response to therapy. These markers are not specific as the number increases in multiple cases of cancer. Some markers are positive in a single type of cancer; others are detectable in more than one type. An ideal tumor marker should be highly sensitive, specific, and reliable with high prognostic value. Other characteristics of an ideal tumor marker are organ specificity and correlation of it with tumor stages. However, none of the tumor markers reported to date has all these characteristics. Influence of different stages of chronic kidney function on serum tumor markers is variable. Furthermore, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation affect on tumor markers differently. Sometimes, no study has been found in the literature review. Combined serum tumor markers may also be valuable. This literature review points the role of serum tumor markers in screening, diagnosis, and follow-up of cancer patients in chronic kidney disease patients and renal allograft recipients. In addition, impact of chronic kidney disease and kidney transplantation on different serum tumor markers is briefly explored.


Cancers; chronic kidney disease; dialysis; kidney transplantation; tumor markers

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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