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J Strength Cond Res. 2016 Mar;30(3):665-71. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000001145.

Effect of BDKRB2 Gene -9/+9 Polymorphism on Training Improvements in Competitive Swimmers.

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1Department of Physiology, Institute of Sport, Warsaw, Poland;2Department of Physical Education and Sport, West Pomeranian Technological University, Szczecin, Poland;3Faculty of Physical Culture and Health Promotion, University of Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland;4Faculty of Tourism and Recreation, Academy of Physical Education and Sport, Gdansk, Poland;5Sport Technology Research Centre, Volga Region State Academy of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism, Kazan, Russia; and6Department of Physiology of Nutrition, Institute of Sport, Warsaw, Poland.


The aim of the study was to investigate the possible association between the BDKRB2 gene and training-induced improvements in swimming performance in well-trained swimmers. One hundred Polish swimmers (52 men and 48 women, aged 18.1 ± 1.9 years), who competed in national and international competitions at middle- (200 m) and long-distance events (≥400 m), were included in the study. Athletes' genotype and allele distributions were analyzed in comparison to 230 unrelated sedentary subjects, who served as controls, with the χ test. All samples were genotyped for the BDKRB2 -9/+9 polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction. The effects of genotype on swimming performance improvements were analyzed with two-way (3 × 2; genotype × time) analysis of variance with metric age as a covariate. The training period of 1.9 ± 0.4 years had a significant (p < 0.01) effect on swimming performance, both in female and male athletes. Both in female and male athletes, the BDKRB2 gene -9/+9 polymorphism had no significant effect on swimming performance. An interaction effect of BDKRB2 gene -9/+9 polymorphism × time was found for swimming performance only in male athletes. Post hoc analyses showed that swimmers with the +9/+9 BDKRB2 genotype had a greater improvement in swimming performance than swimmers with the -9/+9 polymorphism (p ≤ 0.05). No interaction effects for gender × BDKRB2 gene -9/+9 polymorphism were found for either swimming performance or improvement in swimming performance. These results suggest that the response to long-term exercise training could be modulated by the BDKRB2 gene -9/+9 polymorphism in male athletes. In well-trained swimmers, BDKRB2 gene variation was not found to be an independent determinant of swimming performance.

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