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Transl Psychiatry. 2016 Feb 23;6:e739. doi: 10.1038/tp.2016.10.

Antipsychotic pharmacogenomics in first episode psychosis: a role for glutamate genes.

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Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.
Jesse Brown Veterans Administration Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.
Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
Department of Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
Department of Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.


Genetic factors may underlie beneficial and adverse responses to antipsychotic treatment. These relationships may be easier to identify among patients early in the course of disease who have limited exposure to antipsychotic drugs. We examined 86 first episode patients (schizophrenia, psychotic bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder with psychotic features) who had minimal to no prior antipsychotic exposure in a 6-week pharmacogenomic study of antipsychotic treatment response. Response was measured by change in Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale total score. Risperidone monotherapy was the primary antipsychotic treatment. Pharmacogenomic association studies were completed to (1) examine candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes known to be involved with glutamate signaling, and (2) conduct an exploratory genome-wide association study of symptom response to identify potential novel associations for future investigation. Two SNPs in GRM7 (rs2069062 and rs2014195) were significantly associated with antipsychotic response in candidate gene analysis, as were two SNPs in the human glutamate receptor delta 2 (GRID2) gene (rs9307122 and rs1875705) in genome-wide association analysis. Further examination of these findings with those from a separate risperidone-treated study sample demonstrated that top SNPs in both studies were overrepresented in glutamate genes and that there were similarities in neurodevelopmental gene categories associated with drug response from both study samples. These associations indicate a role for gene variants related to glutamate signaling and antipsychotic response with more broad association patterns indicating the potential importance of genes involved in neuronal development.

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