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J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Oct;39(5):514-7. doi: 10.1111/jvp.12299. Epub 2016 Feb 20.

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral acetaminophen in combination with codeine in healthy Greyhound dogs.

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Department of Anatomy and Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA.


The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic and antinociceptive effects of an acetaminophen/codeine combination administered orally to six healthy greyhounds. Antinociception was assessed using an electronic von Frey (vF) device as a mechanical/pressure model. Acetaminophen was administered at a dose of 600 mg (14.4-23.1 mg/kg) and codeine phosphate at 90 mg (2.1-3.3 mg/kg) equivalent to 67.5 mg codeine base (1.6-2.5 mg/kg). The geometric mean maximum plasma concentrations of acetaminophen, codeine, and codeine-6-glucuronide were 7.95 μg/mL, 11.0 ng/mL, and 3819 ng/mL, respectively. Morphine concentrations were <1 ng/mL. The terminal half-lives of acetaminophen, codeine, and codeine-6-glucuronide were 0.94, 1.71, and 3.12 h. There were no significant changes in vF thresholds, except at 12 h which decreased on average by 17% compared to baseline. The decrease in vF thresholds at 12 h could be due to aversion, hyperalgesia, or random variability. The lack of antinociception in this study could be due to a true lack of antinociception, lack of model sensitivity, or specificity. Further studies using different models (including clinical trials), different dog breeds, multiple dose regimens, and a range of dosages are needed prior to recommended use or concluding lack of efficacy for oral acetaminophen/codeine in dogs.

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