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J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2016 Mar;3(1):108-16. doi: 10.1007/s40615-015-0120-0. Epub 2015 May 16.

Neighborhood Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities in the Food and Alcohol Environment: Are There Differences by Commercial Data Sources?

Author information

1
Graduate School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, 130 DeSoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA, 15261, USA. ddm11@pitt.edu.
2
School of Education, Department of Psychology in Education, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
3
School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
4
Social Science Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
5
Graduate School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, 130 DeSoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA, 15261, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

This study examined neighborhood racial and socioeconomic disparities and the density of food and alcohol establishments. We also examined whether these disparities differed by data source.

METHODS:

This study included commercial data for 2003 and 2009 from InfoUSA and Dun and Bradstreet (D&B) in 416 census tracts in Allegheny County, PA. Food and alcohol establishment densities were calculated by using area and population data from the 2000 US census. Differences between InfoUSA and D&B of food and alcohol densities across neighborhood racial and socioeconomic characteristics were tested using correlations and two-way mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA).

RESULTS:

There were differences by data source in the association between neighborhood racial and socioeconomic characteristics and food/alcohol establishment density. There was a positive correlation between grocery store/supermarket density and percentage black, poverty, and percentage without a car among D&B data but not in InfoUSA. Alcohol outlet density (AOD) increased as neighborhood poverty increased for both data sources, but the mean difference in AOD between InfoUSA and D&B was highest among neighborhoods with 25-50 % poverty (Cohen's d -0.49, pā€‰<ā€‰0.001) compared to neighborhoods with lower or higher poverty (2003 data). Mean grocery store density increased as percentage poverty increased, but only among D&B (2009 data).

CONCLUSIONS:

Differences in commercial data in the location and numeration of food and alcohol establishments are associated with neighborhood racial and socioeconomic characteristics and may introduce biases concerning neighborhood food and alcohol environments, racial and socioeconomic disparities, and health.

KEYWORDS:

Disparity; Food and alcohol; Neighborhood

PMID:
26896110
DOI:
10.1007/s40615-015-0120-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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