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BMC Public Health. 2016 Feb 18;16:167. doi: 10.1186/s12889-016-2825-3.

Characterisation of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields in the Spanish INMA birth cohort: study protocol.

Author information

1
BIODONOSTIA Health Research Institute, Paseo Dr. Beguiristain, San Sebastian, 20014, Spain. m-gallasteguibilbao@euskadi.eus.
2
University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Faculty of Pharmacy, 7 Unibertsitateko Ibilbidea, Vitoria-Gasteiz, 01006, Spain. m-gallasteguibilbao@euskadi.eus.
3
ISGlobal, Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona Biomedical Research Park, C/Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003, Barcelona, Spain. mguxens@creal.cat.
4
Pompeu Fabra University, C/Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003, Barcelona, Spain. mguxens@creal.cat.
5
Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, C/Monforte de Lemos 3-5, 28029, Madrid, Spain. mguxens@creal.cat.
6
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychology, Erasmus University Medical Centre-Sophia Children's Hospital, PO Box 2060, 3000 CB, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. mguxens@creal.cat.
7
BIODONOSTIA Health Research Institute, Paseo Dr. Beguiristain, San Sebastian, 20014, Spain. mambien1-san@euskadi.eus.
8
Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, Basque Government, 4 Av. de Navarra, San Sebastian, 20013, Spain. mambien1-san@euskadi.eus.
9
Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, C/Monforte de Lemos 3-5, 28029, Madrid, Spain. irenejaramal@gmail.com.
10
University of Granada, San Cecilio University Hospital, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs.GRANADA), Granada, 18071, Spain. irenejaramal@gmail.com.
11
Communications Engineering Department, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Faculty of Engineering, Alameda Urquijo, Bilbao, 48013, Spain. marta.fernandez@tsr.ehu.eus.
12
ISGlobal, Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona Biomedical Research Park, C/Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003, Barcelona, Spain. lbirks@creal.cat.
13
Pompeu Fabra University, C/Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003, Barcelona, Spain. lbirks@creal.cat.
14
Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, C/Monforte de Lemos 3-5, 28029, Madrid, Spain. lbirks@creal.cat.
15
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, Basel, 4002, Switzerland. benjamin.struchen@unibas.ch.
16
University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. benjamin.struchen@unibas.ch.
17
ISGlobal, Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona Biomedical Research Park, C/Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003, Barcelona, Spain. mvrijheid@creal.cat.
18
Pompeu Fabra University, C/Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003, Barcelona, Spain. mvrijheid@creal.cat.
19
Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, C/Monforte de Lemos 3-5, 28029, Madrid, Spain. mvrijheid@creal.cat.
20
Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, C/Monforte de Lemos 3-5, 28029, Madrid, Spain. estarlich_mar@gva.es.
21
Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València, Avenida de Catalunya 21, Valencia, 46020, Spain. estarlich_mar@gva.es.
22
Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, C/Monforte de Lemos 3-5, 28029, Madrid, Spain. marieta@ugr.es.
23
University of Granada, San Cecilio University Hospital, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs.GRANADA), Granada, 18071, Spain. marieta@ugr.es.
24
Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, C/Monforte de Lemos 3-5, 28029, Madrid, Spain. maties.torrent@hgmo.es.
25
IB-Salut Menorca Health Area, Balearic Islands, Spain. maties.torrent@hgmo.es.
26
Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, C/Monforte de Lemos 3-5, 28029, Madrid, Spain. ballester_fer@gva.es.
27
Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València, Avenida de Catalunya 21, Valencia, 46020, Spain. ballester_fer@gva.es.
28
BIODONOSTIA Health Research Institute, Paseo Dr. Beguiristain, San Sebastian, 20014, Spain. jj.aurreko@gmail.com.
29
Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, Basque Government, 4 Av. de Navarra, San Sebastian, 20013, Spain. jj.aurreko@gmail.com.
30
University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Faculty of Medicine, San Sebastian, Spain. jj.aurreko@gmail.com.
31
BIODONOSTIA Health Research Institute, Paseo Dr. Beguiristain, San Sebastian, 20014, Spain. mambien3-san@euskadi.eus.
32
Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, C/Monforte de Lemos 3-5, 28029, Madrid, Spain. mambien3-san@euskadi.eus.
33
Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, Basque Government, 4 Av. de Navarra, San Sebastian, 20013, Spain. mambien3-san@euskadi.eus.
34
Communications Engineering Department, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Faculty of Engineering, Alameda Urquijo, Bilbao, 48013, Spain. david.guerra@ehu.eus.
35
Materials Physics Department, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Faculty of Chemistry, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 3, San Sebastian, 20018, Spain. julianmaria.gonzalez@ehu.eus.
36
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, Basel, 4002, Switzerland. martin.roosli@unibas.ch.
37
University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. martin.roosli@unibas.ch.
38
BIODONOSTIA Health Research Institute, Paseo Dr. Beguiristain, San Sebastian, 20014, Spain. ambien4ss-san@euskadi.eus.
39
Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, C/Monforte de Lemos 3-5, 28029, Madrid, Spain. ambien4ss-san@euskadi.eus.
40
Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, Basque Government, 4 Av. de Navarra, San Sebastian, 20013, Spain. ambien4ss-san@euskadi.eus.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Analysis of the association between exposure to electromagnetic fields of non-ionising radiation (EMF-NIR) and health in children and adolescents is hindered by the limited availability of data, mainly due to the difficulties on the exposure assessment. This study protocol describes the methodologies used for characterising exposure of children to EMF-NIR in the INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente- Environment and Childhood) Project, a prospective cohort study.

METHODS/DESIGN:

Indirect (proximity to emission sources, questionnaires on sources use and geospatial propagation models) and direct methods (spot and fixed longer-term measurements and personal measurements) were conducted in order to assess exposure levels of study participants aged between 7 and 18 years old. The methodology used varies depending on the frequency of the EMF-NIR and the environment (homes, schools and parks). Questionnaires assessed the use of sources contributing both to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Radiofrequency (RF) exposure levels. Geospatial propagation models (NISMap) are implemented and validated for environmental outdoor sources of RFs using spot measurements. Spot and fixed longer-term ELF and RF measurements were done in the environments where children spend most of the time. Moreover, personal measurements were taken in order to assess individual exposure to RF. The exposure data are used to explore their relationships with proximity and/or use of EMF-NIR sources.

DISCUSSION:

Characterisation of the EMF-NIR exposure by this combination of methods is intended to overcome problems encountered in other research. The assessment of exposure of INMA cohort children and adolescents living in different regions of Spain to the full frequency range of EMF-NIR extends the characterisation of environmental exposures in this cohort. Together with other data obtained in the project, on socioeconomic and family characteristics and development of the children and adolescents, this will enable to evaluate the complex interaction between health outcomes in children and adolescents and the various environmental factors that surround them.

PMID:
26892951
PMCID:
PMC4758161
DOI:
10.1186/s12889-016-2825-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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