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Environ Int. 2016 May;91:14-21. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.02.010. Epub 2016 Feb 16.

Time trends of perfluorinated alkyl acids in serum from Danish pregnant women 2008-2013.

Author information

1
Centre for Arctic Health & Unit of Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
2
Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark.
3
Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark.
4
Section for Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
5
Research Unit for Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
6
Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark; Department of Pediatrics, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark.
7
Centre for Arctic Health & Unit of Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. Electronic address: ebj@ph.au.dk.

Abstract

We aimed to estimate the levels and time trends of perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) in serum of 1533 Danish pregnant nulliparous women between 2008 and 2013. The selection criterion of only including nulliparous women was chosen to avoid confounding from parity. The serum samples were analyzed for sixteen PFAAs using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We investigated the time trends for seven PFAAs, which were detected in more than 50% of the samples: perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoroheptane sulfonate (PFHpS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA). We found that the serum levels of all seven PFAAs decreased during the period from 2008 to 2013; on average PFHxS decreased with 7.0% per year, PFHpS with 14.8%, PFOS with 9.3%, PFOA with 9.1%, PFNA with 6.2%, PFDA with 6.3%, and PFUnA with 7.1% per year. Adjustment for maternal age, body mass index (BMI), educational level and gestational age at blood sampling did not change the time trends much. To our knowledge, we are the first to report decreasing trends of PFNA, PFDA and PFUnA since year 2000, thereby indicating that the phase-out of these compounds are beginning to show an effect on human serum levels.

KEYWORDS:

Bio-monitoring; Perfluorinated compounds; Pregnant women; Serum concentrations; Temporal changes; Trends

PMID:
26891270
DOI:
10.1016/j.envint.2016.02.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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