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J Parkinsons Dis. 2016;6(1):231-7. doi: 10.3233/JPD-150725.

Risk Factor Profile in Parkinson's Disease Subtype with REM Sleep Behavior Disorder.

Author information

Department of Neurology, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, Montréal, Canada.
Reference Center for Narcolepsy, Sleep Unit, Department of Neurology, Hôpital Gui de Chauliac, INSERM U1061, Montpellier, F-34093 Cedex 5 France.
Mayo Center for Sleep Medicine, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN, USA.
Centre d'Études Avancées en Médecine du Sommeil, Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, Montréal, Canada.
Department of Neurology, Hôpital Gui de Chauliac, INSERM U1061, Montpellier, F-34093 Cedex 5 France.
Département de psychologie, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.



Numerous large-scale studies have found diverse risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD), including caffeine non-use, non-smoking, head injury, pesticide exposure, and family history. These studies assessed risk factors for PD overall; however, PD is a heterogeneous condition. One of the strongest identifiers of prognosis and disease subtype is the co-occurrence of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD).In previous studies, idiopathic RBD was associated with a different risk factor profile from PD and dementia with Lewy bodies, suggesting that the PD-RBD subtype may also have a different risk factor profile.


To define risk factors for PD in patients with or without associated RBD.


In a questionnaire, we assessed risk factors for PD, including demographic, medical, environmental, and lifestyle variables of 189 PD patients with or without associated polysomnography-confirmed RBD. The risk profile of patients with vs. without RBD was assessed with logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, and disease duration.


PD-RBD patients were more likely to have been a welder (OR = 3.11 (1.05-9.223), and to have been regular smokers (OR = 1.96 (1.04-3.68)). There were no differences in use of caffeine or alcohol, other occupations, pesticide exposure, rural living, or well water use. Patients with RBD had a higher prevalence of the combined family history of both dementia and parkinsonism (13.3% vs. 5.5% , OR = 3.28 (1.07-10.0).


The RBD-specific subtype of PD may also have a different risk factor profile.


Parkinson’s disease; REM sleep behavior disorder; risk factors

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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