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Neural Plast. 2016;2016:3985063. doi: 10.1155/2016/3985063. Epub 2016 Jan 14.

Linking Mitochondria to Synapses: New Insights for Stress-Related Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

Author information

1
Team AVENIR "Stress Hormones and Plasticity", INSERM U1191, CNRS UMR5203, Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle, 34094 Montpellier, France.

Abstract

The brain evolved cellular mechanisms for adapting synaptic function to energy supply. This is particularly evident when homeostasis is challenged by stress. Signaling loops between the mitochondria and synapses scale neuronal connectivity with bioenergetics capacity. A biphasic "inverted U shape" response to the stress hormone glucocorticoids is demonstrated in mitochondria and at synapses, modulating neural plasticity and physiological responses. Low dose enhances neurotransmission, synaptic growth, mitochondrial functions, learning, and memory whereas chronic, higher doses produce inhibition of these functions. The range of physiological effects by stress and glucocorticoid depends on the dose, duration, and context at exposure. These criteria are met by neuronal activity and the circadian, stress-sensitive and ultradian, stress-insensitive modes of glucocorticoid secretion. A major hallmark of stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders is the disrupted glucocorticoid rhythms and tissue resistance to signaling with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). GR resistance could result from the loss of context-dependent glucocorticoid signaling mediated by the downregulation of the activity-dependent neurotrophin BDNF. The coincidence of BDNF and GR signaling changes glucocorticoid signaling output with consequences on mitochondrial respiration efficiency, synaptic plasticity, and adaptive trajectories.

PMID:
26885402
PMCID:
PMC4738951
DOI:
10.1155/2016/3985063
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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