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Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015 Nov 15;8(11):20939-45. eCollection 2015.

Association between sodium intakes with the risk of chronic kidney disease: evidence from a meta-analysis.

Author information

1
Department of Urology, First Hospital of Jilin University Changchun 130021, China.
2
Department of Nephrology, First Hospital of Jilin University Changchun 130021, China.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Inconsistent results regarding the association between sodium intake and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been reported. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence from epidemiological studies of sodium with the risk of CKD.

METHODS:

Pertinent studies were identified by searching of PubMed and Web of Science. The random effect model was used to combine the results. Meta-regression and subgroups analyses were used to explore potential sources of between-study heterogeneity. Publication bias was estimated using Egger's regression asymmetry test.

RESULTS:

Finally, 9 articles involving 5638 CKD cases were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled results suggested that highest sodium intake level versus lowest level was significantly associated with the risk of CKD [summary relative risk (RR) = 1.088, 95% CI = 1.009-1.193, I(2) = 78.1%], especially among Europe [summary RR = 1.097, 95% CI = 1.009-1.205], but not in the America. The association was also found in the prospective studies [summary RR = 1.096, 95% CI = 1.007-1.192], but not in the cross-sectional studies. No evidence of significant publication bias was found.

CONCLUSIONS:

Higher sodium intake might increase the risk of CKD.

KEYWORDS:

Sodium; chronic kidney disease; meta-analysis

PMID:
26885022
PMCID:
PMC4723867

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