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Nutr Rev. 2016 Mar;74(3):181-97. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuv104. Epub 2016 Feb 16.

Gut epithelial inducible heat-shock proteins and their modulation by diet and the microbiota.

Author information

1
M.E. Arnal and J.P. Lallès are with the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Human Nutrition Division, Clermont-Ferrand, France. J.P. Lallès is with the Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine Ouest, Nantes, France.
2
M.E. Arnal and J.P. Lallès are with the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Human Nutrition Division, Clermont-Ferrand, France. J.P. Lallès is with the Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine Ouest, Nantes, France. jean-paul.lalles@rennes.inra.fr.

Abstract

The epidemic of metabolic diseases has raised questions about the interplay between the human diet and the gut and its microbiota. The gut has two vital roles: nutrient absorption and intestinal barrier function. Gut barrier defects are involved in many diseases. Excess energy intake disturbs the gut microbiota and favors body entry of microbial compounds that stimulate chronic metabolic inflammation. In this context, the natural defense mechanisms of gut epithelial cells and the potential to boost them nutritionally warrant further study. One such important defense system is the activation of inducible heat-shock proteins (iHSPs) which protect the gut epithelium against oxidative stress and inflammation. Importantly, various microbial components can induce the expression of iHSPs. This review examines gut epithelial iHSPs as the main targets of microbial signals and nutrients and presents data on diseases involving disturbances of gut epithelial iHSPs. In addition, a broad literature analysis of dietary modulation of gut epithelial iHSPs is provided. Future research aims should include the identification of gut microbes that can optimize gut-protective iHSPs and the evaluation of iHSP-mediated health benefits of nutrients and food components.

KEYWORDS:

diet; gut; heat-shock protein; microbiota.

PMID:
26883882
PMCID:
PMC4892289
[Available on 2017-03-01]
DOI:
10.1093/nutrit/nuv104
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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