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Spine J. 2016 Jun;16(6):748-55. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2016.01.214. Epub 2016 Feb 12.

The relationship between back pain and schoolbag use: a cross-sectional study of 5,318 Italian students.

Author information

1
Don Carlo Gnocchi Foundation, Piazzale Morandi 6, 20121 Milan, Italy; Don Carlo Gnocchi Foundation, Via Casal del Marmo 401, 00166 Rome, Italy. Electronic address: iaprile@dongnocchi.it.
2
Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, UCSC University, Largo F. Vito 1, 00168 Rome, Italy.
3
Don Carlo Gnocchi Foundation, Via Casal del Marmo 401, 00166 Rome, Italy.
4
Department of Methods and Models for Economics, Territory and Finance, Sapienza University of Rome, Via del Castro Laurenziano 9, 00168 Rome, Italy.
5
Don Carlo Gnocchi Onlus Foundation, Via Quadrivio, 83054 Sant'Angelo dei Lombardi, Italy.
6
Department of Neurosciences: Sciences NPSRR, University of Padova, Via Giustiniani, 5, 35128 Padova, Italy.
7
Don Carlo Gnocchi Foundation, Piazzale Morandi 6, 20121 Milan, Italy; Don Carlo Gnocchi Foundation, Via Casal del Marmo 401, 00166 Rome, Italy.
8
Don Carlo Gnocchi Foundation, Piazzale Morandi 6, 20121 Milan, Italy; Department of Neurosciences, UCSC University, Largo F. Vito 1, 00168 Rome, Italy.

Abstract

BACKGROUND CONTEXT:

Back pain at a young age is considered to be predictive of chronicity. Several studies have investigated the relationship between the use of a schoolbag and back pain, although some aspects are still unclear.

PURPOSE:

The aim of this study was to evaluate back pain due to schoolbag use in terms of (1) prevalence and intensity, (2) differences between male and female pupils, and (3) predisposing factors.

STUDY DESIGN:

This is a cross-sectional study.

PATIENT SAMPLE:

The sample was composed of 5,318 healthy pupils aged 6 to 19 years (classified according to three age groups: children, younger adolescents, and older adolescents).

OUTCOME MEASURES:

Schoolbag-related pain was assessed by means of an ad hoc questionnaire. The intensity of pain was assessed using the Wong scale.

METHODS:

Subjects underwent a face-to-face interview using an ad hoc questionnaire. The intensity of pain was assessed using the Wong scale. On the basis of the prevalence and intensity of back pain, we divided our population into two groups: (1) no or mild pain group and (2) moderate or severe pain group. The "schoolbag load" (ratio between schoolbag and pupil weight multiplied by 100) was calculated for each subject.

RESULTS:

More than 60% of the subjects reported pain. Although the schoolbag load decreased from children to young and older adolescents, schoolbag-related pain significantly increased (p<.001). Girls reported significantly more frequent and more severe pain than boys. The logistic model confirmed that adolescent girls are the group at greatest risk of suffering from intense pain. The schoolbag load had a weak impact on back pain, whereas the schoolbag carrying time was a strong predictor.

CONCLUSIONS:

Adolescent girls have the highest risk of experiencing severe back pain, regardless of schoolbag load. This suggests that other factors (anatomical, physiological, or environmental) might play an important role in pain perception. These aspects should be investigated to plan appropriate preventive and rehabilitative strategies.

KEYWORDS:

Adolescents; Back pain; Children; Gender; Predisposing factors; Schoolbag weight

PMID:
26882858
DOI:
10.1016/j.spinee.2016.01.214
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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