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Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2016 Feb 16;13:23. doi: 10.1186/s12966-016-0344-3.

Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between energy intake and BMI z-score in European children.

Author information

1
Leibniz-Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology - BIPS GmbH, Achterstr. 30, D-28359, Bremen, Germany. hebestr@bips.uni-bremen.de.
2
Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, Avellino, Italy.
3
Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. stefaan.dehenauw@ugent.be.
4
Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. gabriele.eiben@medfak.gu.se.
5
Research and Education Institute of Child Health, Strovolos, Cyprus. chadjigeo@mtnmail.com.cy.
6
Department of Pediatrics, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary and Institute for Medical Information Processing, Biometrics and Epidemiology and German Centre for Vertigo and Balance Disorders, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany. e.k.kovacs@gmail.com.
7
Department of Preventive and Predictive Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy. Vittorio.Krogh@istitutotumori.mi.it.
8
GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain. lmoreno@unizar.es.
9
Department of Preventive and Predictive Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy. Valeria.Pala@istitutotumori.mi.it.
10
Department of Chronic Diseases, National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia. toomas.veidebaum@tai.ee.
11
Leibniz-Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology - BIPS GmbH, Achterstr. 30, D-28359, Bremen, Germany. wolters@bips.uni-bremen.de.
12
Leibniz-Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology - BIPS GmbH, Achterstr. 30, D-28359, Bremen, Germany. boern@bips.uni-bremen.de.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Evidence for the effect of dietary energy on BMI z-scores in young children is limited. We aim to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of daily energy intake (EI) on BMI z-scores of European boys and girls considering growth-related height dependencies of EI using residual EI.

METHODS:

To investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of daily energy intake (EI) on BMI z-scores of European boys and girls considering growth-related height dependencies of EI using residual EI.

METHODS:

Subjects were children aged 2- < 10 y old (N = 2753, 48.2% girls) participating in the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS) baseline and follow-up examination. Usual EI (kcal/day) was calculated based on the National Cancer Institute-method excluding subjects with implausible reported EI. Effect of age, height and sex-adjusted residuals of EI on BMI z-score was investigated stratified by baseline age -group (2- < 4 y, 4- < 6 y, 6- < 8 y and 8- < 10 y) cross-sectionally using linear regression models adjusted for relevant confounders (crude model: age, sex, country; fully adjusted model: plus parental ISCED level, parental BMI, screen time; subgroup analysis: plus objectively measured physical activity). Longitudinal associations were estimated between changes in (Δ) residual EI per year and ΔBMI z-score per year with adjustments analogously to the cross-sectional models but with additional adjustment for residual EI at baseline.

RESULTS:

Cross-sectionally, positive associations were observed between residual EI and BMI z-score for the full study sample, for boys and in older (≥6 years) but not in younger children in the crude and fully adjusted model. Longitudinally, small positive associations were observed between Δresidual EI per y on ΔBMI z-score per y for the full study sample and in 4- < 6 y olds in the crude and fully adjusted model.

CONCLUSION:

In conclusion, EI above the average intakes for a certain sex, age and height are weakly associated with BMI z-scores in European children. Residual EI may be considered as a useful exposure measure in children as it accounts for growth-related changes in usual EI during childhood.

PMID:
26879850
PMCID:
PMC4754870
DOI:
10.1186/s12966-016-0344-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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