Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Osteoporos Int. 2016 Jul;27(7):2231-2240. doi: 10.1007/s00198-016-3514-x. Epub 2016 Feb 15.

Lower leg muscle density is independently associated with fall status in community-dwelling older adults.

Author information

1
College of Kinesiology, University of Saskatchewan, 87 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N5B2, Canada. andrew.frank-wilson@usask.ca.
2
College of Kinesiology, University of Saskatchewan, 87 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N5B2, Canada.
3
School of Physical Therapy, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
4
University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada.
5
Saskatoon Osteoporosis and CaMOs Centre, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
6
College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
7
College of Kinesiology, University of Saskatchewan, 87 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N5B2, Canada. s.kontulainen@usask.ca.

Abstract

Muscle density is a risk factor for fractures in older adults; however, its association with falls is not well described. After adjusting for biologically relevant confounding factors, a unit decrease in muscle density was associated with a 17 % increase in odds of reporting a fall, independent of functional mobility.

INTRODUCTION:

Falls are the leading cause of injury, disability, and fractures in older adults. Low muscle density (i.e., caused by muscle adiposity) and functional mobility have been identified as risk factors for incident disability and fractures in older adults; however, it is not known if these are also independently associated with falls. The purpose of this study was to explore the associations of muscle density and functional mobility with fall status.

METHODS:

Cross-sectional observational study of 183 men and women aged 60-98 years. Descriptive data, including a 12-month fall recall, Timed Up and Go (TUG) test performance, lower leg muscle area, and density. Odds ratio (OR) of being a faller were calculated, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, general health status, diabetes, and comorbidities.

RESULTS:

Every mg/cm(3) increase in muscle density (mean 70.2, SD 2.6 mg/cm(3)) independently reduced the odds of being a faller by 19 % (OR 0.81 [95 % CI 0.67 to 0.97]), and every 1 s longer TUG test time (mean 9.8, SD 2.6 s) independently increased the odds by 17 % (OR 1.17 [95 % CI 1.01 to 1.37]). When both muscle density and TUG test time were included in the same model, only age (OR 0.93 [95 % CI 0.87 to 0.99]) and muscle density (OR 0.83 [95 % CI 0.69 to 0.99]) were independently associated with fall status.

CONCLUSIONS:

Muscle density was associated with fall status, independent of functional mobility. Muscle density may compliment functional mobility tests as a biometric outcome for assessing fall risk in well-functioning older adults.

KEYWORDS:

Fall risk; Functional mobility; Muscle adiposity; Myosteatosis; pQCT

PMID:
26879201
DOI:
10.1007/s00198-016-3514-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center