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Nutr Neurosci. 2017 Jul;20(6):360-368. doi: 10.1080/1028415X.2016.1144846. Epub 2016 Feb 16.

Hesperidin ameliorates cognitive dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis against aluminium chloride induced rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

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a Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science , Annamalai University , Annamalai Nagar , Tamilnadu 608 002 , India.
b Department of Food Science and Nutrition , CAMS, Sultan Qaboos University , Muscat , Oman.
c Ageing and Dementia Research Group , Sultan Qaboos University , Muscat , Oman.



Deregulation of metal ion homeostasis has been assumed as one of the key factors in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Aluminium (Al) has been believed as a major risk factor for the cause and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In our lab, we have previously reported that hesperidin, a citrus bioflavonoid reversed memory loss caused by aluminium intoxication through attenuating acetylcholine esterase activity and the expression of Amyloid β biosynthesis related markers. Al has been reported to cause oxidative stress associated apoptotic neuronal loss in the brain. So in the present study, protective effect of hesperidin against aluminium chloride (AlCl3) induced cognitive impairment, oxidative stress and apoptosis was studied.


Male Wistar rats were divided into control, AlCl3 treated (100 mg/kg., b.w.), AlCl3 and hesperidin (100 mg/kg., b.w.) co-treated and hesperidin alone treated groups. In control and experimental rats, learning and memory impairment were measured by radial arm maze, elevated plus maze and passive avoidance tests. In addition, oxidative stress and expression of pro and anti-apoptotic markers were also evaluated.


Intraperitoneal injection of AlCl3 (100 mg/kg., b.w.) for 60 days significantly enhanced the learning and memory deficits, levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the expression of Bax and diminished the levels of reduced glutathione, activities of enzymatic antioxidants and the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) as compared to control group in the hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum. Coadministration of hesperidin (100 mg/kg., b.w. oral) for 60 days prevented the cognitive deficits, biochemical anomalies and apoptosis induced by AlCl3 treatment.


Results of the present study demonstrated that hesperidin could be a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of oxidative stress and apoptosis associated neurodegenerative diseases including AD.


Alzheimer's disease; Apoptosis; Cognitive dysfunction; Hesperidin; Oxidative stress

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