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Restor Dent Endod. 2016 Feb;41(1):12-21. doi: 10.5395/rde.2016.41.1.12. Epub 2015 Dec 1.

Effect of acidic solutions on the microhardness of dentin and set OrthoMTA and their cytotoxicity on murine macrophage.

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Department of Conservative Dentistry, Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University Dental Hospital, Seoul National University School of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea.
Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.
Department of Conservative Dentistry, Wonju Severance Christian Hospital, Yonsei University, Wonju, Korea.
Bendilde St. Margaret's School, St. Louis Park, MN, USA.
Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea.



To evaluate the effects of three acids on the microhardness of set mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and root dentin, and cytotoxicity on murine macrophage.


OrthoMTA (BioMTA) was mixed and packed into the human root dentin blocks of 1.5 mm diameter and 5 mm height. Four groups, each of ten roots, were exposed to 10% citric acid (CA), 5% glycolic acid (GA), 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and saline for five minutes after setting of the OrthoMTA. Vickers surface microhardness of set MTA and dentin was measured before and after exposure to solutions, and compared between groups using one-way ANOVA with Tukey test. The microhardness value of each group was analyzed using student t test. Acid-treated OrthoMTA and dentin was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cell viability of tested solutions was assessed using WST-8 assay and murine macrophage.


Three test solutions reduced microhardness of dentin. 17% EDTA demonstrated severe dentinal erosion, significantly reduced the dentinal microhardness compared to 10% CA (p = 0.034) or 5% GA (p = 0.006). 10% CA or 5% GA significantly reduced the surface microhardness of set MTA compared to 17% EDTA and saline (p < 0.001). Acid-treated OrthoMTA demonstrated microporous structure with destruction of globular crystal. EDTA exhibited significantly more cellular toxicity than the other acidic solutions at diluted concentrations (0.2, 0.5, 1.0%).


Tested acidic solutions reduced microhardness of root dentin. Five minute's application of 10% CA and 5% GA significantly reduced the microhardness of set OrthoMTA with lower cellular cytotoxicity compared to 17% EDTA.


Citric acid; EDTA; Glycolic acid; OrthoMTA; SEM; Vickers surface microhardness

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