Send to

Choose Destination
J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2016 Aug 5;127:207-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2016.01.059. Epub 2016 Feb 1.

Current methods of the analysis of immunosuppressive agents in clinical materials: A review.

Author information

Department of Environmental Analysis, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdańsk, ul. Wita Stwosza 63, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland. Electronic address:
Department of Environmental Analysis, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdańsk, ul. Wita Stwosza 63, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland.


More than 100000 solid organ transplantations are performed every year worldwide. Calcineurin (cyclosporine A, tacrolimus), serine/threonine kinase (sirolimus, everolimus) and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor (mycophenolate mofetil), are the most common drugs used as immunosuppressive agents after solid organ transplantation. Immunosuppressive therapy, although necessary after transplantation, is associated with many adverse consequences, including the formation of secondary metabolites of drugs and the induction of their side effects. Calcineurin inhibitors are associated with nephrotoxicity, cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity; moreover, they increase the risk of many diseases after transplantation. The review presents a study of the movement of drugs in the body, including the processes of absorption, distribution, localisation in tissues, biotransformation and excretion, and also their accompanying side effects. Therefore, there is a necessity to monitor immunosuppressants, especially because these drugs are characterised by narrow therapeutic ranges. Their incorrect concentrations in a patient's blood could result in transplant rejection or in the accumulation of toxic effects. Immunosuppressive pharmaceuticals are macrolide lactones, peptides, and high molecular weight molecules that can be metabolised to several metabolites. Therefore the two main analytical methods used for their determination are high performance liquid chromatography with various detection methods and immunoassay methods. Despite the rapid development of new analytical methods of analysing immunosuppressive agents, the application of the latest generation of detectors and increasing sensitivity of such methods, there is still a great demand for the development of highly selective, sensitive, specific, rapid and relatively simple methods of immunosuppressive drugs analysis.


Immunoassays; Immunosuppresive drugs; LC–MS/MS methods; Mass spectrometry; Therapeutic drug monitoring; Transplant rejection

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center