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Int J Public Health. 2016 Mar;61(2):269-75. doi: 10.1007/s00038-016-0792-1. Epub 2016 Feb 13.

Country-level correlates of e-cigarette use in the European Union.

Author information

1
Department of Public Health and Infectious diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy.
2
Department of Public Health and Infectious diseases, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy. daniele.mipatrini@uniroma1.it.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the prevalence of e-cigarette use and country-level factors across 28 European countries.

METHODS:

The study objectives were addressed in an ecological design in which both exposures and outcomes were measured at the country level. Data from the Eurobarometer Report, the Eurostat database and the WHO observatory were analyzed. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed considering the rates of current and ever smokers of e-cigarettes as dependent variables, and socio-economic factors, health status and policies against tobacco as independent variables.

RESULTS:

Both the rate of current smokers and ever smokers of e-cigarette were positively associated to the offer of help to quit tobacco use (P < 0.01; P = 0.04) and to the raise of taxes on tobacco (P = 0.01; P = 0.01). The warn on dangers of tobacco negatively correlated with the rate of e-cigarette current smokers. The rate of current e-cigarette smokers correlated with the rate of current smokers and with national Gross Domestic Product, while the rate of ever e-cigarette smokers did not correlate with any socio-economic factor.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our analysis suggests that both policy and non-policy factors are associated with the geographical variability seen in the prevalence of e-cigarette use. Policies against the consumption of conventional tobacco products may lead to an increase of e-cigarette smokers.

KEYWORDS:

Europe; Smoking cessation; Tobacco policy; e-Cigarette

PMID:
26874833
DOI:
10.1007/s00038-016-0792-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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