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Sci Total Environ. 2016 May 1;551-552:101-7. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.156. Epub 2016 Feb 12.

Monitoring of fluoride in water samples using a smartphone.

Author information

1
Akvo Foundation, Netherlands.
2
INREM Foundation, India.

Abstract

In several parts of India, groundwater is the only reliable, year round source for drinking water. Prevention of fluorosis, a chronic disease resulting from excess intake of fluoride, requires the screening of all groundwater sources for fluoride in endemic areas. In this paper, the authors present a field deployable colorimetric analyzer based on an inexpensive smartphone embedded with digital camera for taking photograph of the colored solution as well as an easy-fit, and compact sample chamber (Akvo Caddisfly). Phones marketed by different smartphone makers were used. Commercially available zirconium xylenol orange reagent was used for determining fluoride concentration. A software program was developed to use with the phone for recording and analyzing the RGB color of the picture. Linear range for fluoride estimation was 0-2mgl(-1). Around 200 samples, which consisted of laboratory prepared as well as field samples collected from different locations in Karnataka, India, were tested with Akvo Caddisfly. The results showed a significant positive correlation between Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) method and Akvo Caddisfly (Phones A, B and C), with correlation coefficient ranging between 0.9952 and 1.000. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean fluoride content values between ISE and Phone B and C except for Phone A. Thus the smartphone method is economical and suited for groundwater fluoride analysis in the field.

KEYWORDS:

Colorimeter; Drinking water; Fluoride; Fluorosis; Smartphone; Zirconium Xylenol Orange

PMID:
26874766
DOI:
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.156
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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