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Cerebellum. 2017 Feb;16(1):203-229. doi: 10.1007/s12311-016-0763-3.

Consensus Paper: Towards a Systems-Level View of Cerebellar Function: the Interplay Between Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia, and Cortex.

Author information

1
Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (ISTC-CNR), Via San Martino della Battaglia 44, 00185, Rome, Italy. daniele.caligiore@istc.cnr.it.
2
Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (ISTC-CNR), Via San Martino della Battaglia 44, 00185, Rome, Italy.
3
Systems Neuroscience Institute, Department of Neurobiology, and Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, University of Pittsburgh, 3501 Fifth Avenue, 4079 BST-3, Pittsburgh, PA, 15261, USA.
4
Neural Computation Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Kunigami-gun, Okinawa, 904-0495, Japan.
5
Department of Neurology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center (HP 935), PO Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
6
Department of Physiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 303 East Chicago Avenue M211, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.
7
Neural Basis of Sensorimotor Control, Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, BMC F10 Tornavägen 10, 221 84, Lund, Sweden.
8
School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.
9
Human Motor Control Section, National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, 20982, USA.
10
Comprehensive Care Centre for Movement Disorders, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Kerala, 695011, India.
11
Department of Information and Communication Technologies, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
12
Catalan Institute of Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain.

Abstract

Despite increasing evidence suggesting the cerebellum works in concert with the cortex and basal ganglia, the nature of the reciprocal interactions between these three brain regions remains unclear. This consensus paper gathers diverse recent views on a variety of important roles played by the cerebellum within the cerebello-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system across a range of motor and cognitive functions. The paper includes theoretical and empirical contributions, which cover the following topics: recent evidence supporting the dynamical interplay between cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortical areas in humans and other animals; theoretical neuroscience perspectives and empirical evidence on the reciprocal influences between cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortex in learning and control processes; and data suggesting possible roles of the cerebellum in basal ganglia movement disorders. Although starting from different backgrounds and dealing with different topics, all the contributors agree that viewing the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortex as an integrated system enables us to understand the function of these areas in radically different ways. In addition, there is unanimous consensus between the authors that future experimental and computational work is needed to understand the function of cerebellar-basal ganglia circuitry in both motor and non-motor functions. The paper reports the most advanced perspectives on the role of the cerebellum within the cerebello-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system and illustrates other elements of consensus as well as disagreements and open questions in the field.

KEYWORDS:

Basal ganglia cerebellum anatomical link; Cerebellar motor and cognitive function; Movement disorders; Non-invasive brain stimulation; Nucleo-olivary inhibition; Parkinson’s disease tremor

PMID:
26873754
PMCID:
PMC5243918
DOI:
10.1007/s12311-016-0763-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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