Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Int J Infect Dis. 2016 Jun;47:86-91. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2016.02.003. Epub 2016 Feb 9.

Tuberculosis and mass gatherings-opportunities for defining burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage.

Author information

1
Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, and NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, UCL Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; Global Centre for Mass Gatherings, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Global Health Department, Public Health England, London, UK; University of Zambia-University College London Medical School Research and Training Project University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia; Special Infectious Agents Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Centre, and Medical Laboratory Technology Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
2
Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Global Centre for Mass Gatherings, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
3
Global Centre for Mass Gatherings, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
4
Global Health Department, Public Health England, London, UK.
5
Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, and NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, UCL Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; University of Zambia-University College London Medical School Research and Training Project University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia.
6
University of Zambia-University College London Medical School Research and Training Project University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia.
7
Global Centre for Mass Gatherings, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Muslim Council of Great Britain, London, UK.
8
Global Centre for Mass Gatherings, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Global Health Department, Public Health England, London, UK.
9
Global Centre for Mass Gatherings, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; The Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman; Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
10
Global Centre for Mass Gatherings, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Special Infectious Agents Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Centre, and Medical Laboratory Technology Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address: eazhar@kau.edu.sa.

Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB) is now the most common infectious cause of death worldwide. In 2014, an estimated 9.6 million people developed active TB. There were an estimated three million people with active TB including 360000 with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) who were not diagnosed, and such people continue to fuel TB transmission in the community. Accurate data on the actual burden of TB and the transmission risk associated with mass gatherings are scarce and unreliable due to the small numbers studied and methodological issues. Every year, an estimated 10 million pilgrims from 184 countries travel to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to perform the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages. A large majority of pilgrims come from high TB burden and MDR-TB endemic areas and thus many may have undiagnosed active TB, sub-clinical TB, and latent TB infection. The Hajj pilgrimage provides unique opportunities for the KSA and the 184 countries from which pilgrims originate, to conduct high quality priority research studies on TB under the remit of the Global Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine. Research opportunities are discussed, including those related to the definition of the TB burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage. The associated data are required to develop international recommendations and guidelines for TB management and control at mass gathering events.

KEYWORDS:

Hajj; Mass gatherings; Transmission; Tuberculosis

PMID:
26873277
DOI:
10.1016/j.ijid.2016.02.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center