Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Food Chem. 2016 Jun 15;201:205-12. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.01.091. Epub 2016 Jan 21.

Fortification of dark chocolate with spray dried black mulberry (Morus nigra) waste extract encapsulated in chitosan-coated liposomes and bioaccessability studies.

Author information

1
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul, Turkey.
2
TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Food Institute, 41470, Gebze-Kocaeli, Turkey.
3
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul, Turkey.
4
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address: ozcelik@itu.edu.tr.

Abstract

Fine-disperse anionic liposomes containing black mulberry (Morus nigra) extract (BME) were prepared by high pressure homogenization at 25,000 psi. Primary liposomes were coated with cationic chitosan (0.4, w/v%) using the layer-by-layer depositing method and mixed with maltodextrin (MD) (20, w/v%) prior to spray drying. After that, spray dried liposomal powders containing BME were added to chocolates with alkalization degrees (pH 4.5, 6, 7.5) at conching temperatures of 40 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C. The results showed that, compared to spray dried extract, chitosan coated liposomal powders provided better protection of anthocyanin content in both increased temperature and pH. In addition, encapsulation in liposomes enhanced in vitro bioaccessability of anthocyanins. Chocolate was fortified with encapsulated anthocyanins maximum 76.8% depending on conching temperature and pH.

KEYWORDS:

Black mulberry waste; Chitosan; Dark chocolate; Encapsulation; Liposome; Spray drying

PMID:
26868567
DOI:
10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.01.091
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center