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Annu Rev Biochem. 2016 Jun 2;85:743-63. doi: 10.1146/annurev-biochem-060815-014830. Epub 2016 Feb 8.

Necroptosis and Inflammation.

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Physiological Chemistry Department, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, California 94080; email:
Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Department, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, California 94080; email:


Necroptosis is a regulated form of necrosis, with the dying cell rupturing and releasing intracellular components that can trigger an innate immune response. Toll-like receptor 3 and 4 agonists, tumor necrosis factor, certain viral infections, or the T cell receptor can trigger necroptosis if the activity of the protease caspase-8 is compromised. Necroptosis signaling is modulated by the kinase RIPK1 and requires the kinase RIPK3 and the pseudokinase MLKL. Either RIPK3 deficiency or RIPK1 inhibition confers resistance in various animal disease models, suggesting that inflammation caused by necroptosis contributes to tissue damage and that inhibitors of these kinases could have therapeutic potential. Recent studies have revealed unexpected complexity in the regulation of cell death programs by RIPK1 and RIPK3 with the possibility that necroptosis is but one mechanism by which these kinases promote inflammation.



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