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World J Clin Oncol. 2016 Feb 10;7(1):87-97. doi: 10.5306/wjco.v7.i1.87.

Overview, prevention and management of chemotherapy extravasation.

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1
Firas Y Kreidieh, Hiba A Moukadem, Nagi S El Saghir, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Riad El Solh 1107 2020, Beirut, Lebanon.

Abstract

Chemotherapy extravasation remains an accidental complication of chemotherapy administration and may result in serious damage to patients. We review in this article the clinical aspects of chemotherapy extravasation and latest advances in definitions, classification, prevention, management and guidelines. We review the grading of extravasation and tissue damage according to various chemotherapeutic drugs and present an update on treatment and new antidotes including dexrazoxane for anthracyclines extravasation. We highlight the importance of education and training of the oncology team for prevention and prompt pharmacological and non-pharmacological management and stress the availability of new antidotes like dexrazoxane wherever anthracyclines are being infused.

KEYWORDS:

Antidote; Chemotherapy; Dexrazoxane; Dimethyl sulfoxide; Extravasation; Hyaluronidase; Tissue damage; Vesicant

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