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Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2016 Mar 30;249:91-6. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2016.01.016. Epub 2016 Jan 19.

Effects of salience-network-node neurofeedback training on affective biases in major depressive disorder.

Author information

1
Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. Electronic address: paul.hamilton@liu.se.
2
Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
3
Department of Anesthesiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
4
Advanced MRI Section, Laboratory of Functional and Molecular Imaging, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
5
Neurosciences Program, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
6
Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Abstract

Neural models of major depressive disorder (MDD) posit that over-response of components of the brain's salience network (SN) to negative stimuli plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of MDD. In the present proof-of-concept study, we tested this formulation directly by examining the affective consequences of training depressed persons to down-regulate response of SN nodes to negative material. Ten participants in the real neurofeedback group saw, and attempted to learn to down-regulate, activity from an empirically identified node of the SN. Ten other participants engaged in an equivalent procedure with the exception that they saw SN-node neurofeedback indices from participants in the real neurofeedback group. Before and after scanning, all participants completed tasks assessing emotional responses to negative scenes and to negative and positive self-descriptive adjectives. Compared to participants in the sham-neurofeedback group, from pre- to post-training, participants in the real-neurofeedback group showed a greater decrease in SN-node response to negative stimuli, a greater decrease in self-reported emotional response to negative scenes, and a greater decrease in self-reported emotional response to negative self-descriptive adjectives. Our findings provide support for a neural formulation in which the SN plays a primary role in contributing to negative cognitive biases in MDD.

KEYWORDS:

Functional magnetic resonance imaging; Information processing biases; Major depressive disorder; Neurofeedback; Salience network

PMID:
26862057
PMCID:
PMC4803612
DOI:
10.1016/j.pscychresns.2016.01.016
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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