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Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Feb 6;17(2):175. doi: 10.3390/ijms17020175.

Focus on Extracellular Vesicles: New Frontiers of Cell-to-Cell Communication in Cancer.

Author information

1
Division of Cancer Biology and Therapeutics, Departments of Surgery, Biomedical Sciences and Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. chiara.ciardiello@hotmail.it.
2
Experimental Pharmacology Unit, Department of Research, IRCCS-Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione G. Pascale, 80131 Naples, Italy. chiara.ciardiello@hotmail.it.
3
Division of Cancer Biology and Therapeutics, Departments of Surgery, Biomedical Sciences and Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. lorecava@hotmail.it.
4
Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Science, University of Florence, 50121 Florence, Italy. lorecava@hotmail.it.
5
Division of Cancer Biology and Therapeutics, Departments of Surgery, Biomedical Sciences and Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. cristiana.spinelli@cshs.org.
6
Division of Cancer Biology and Therapeutics, Departments of Surgery, Biomedical Sciences and Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. julie.yang@cshs.org.
7
Division of Cancer Biology and Therapeutics, Departments of Surgery, Biomedical Sciences and Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.
8
Istituto Nazionale Genetica Molecolare "Romeo ed Enrica Invernizzi", 20122 Milan, Italy. paoladecandia@yahoo.com.
9
Division of Cancer Biology and Therapeutics, Departments of Surgery, Biomedical Sciences and Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. valentina.minciacchi@cshs.org.
10
Division of Cancer Biology and Therapeutics, Departments of Surgery, Biomedical Sciences and Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. dolores.divizio@cshs.org.
11
The Urological Diseases Research Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. dolores.divizio@cshs.org.
12
Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. dolores.divizio@cshs.org.

Abstract

Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) have received considerable attention in recent years, both as mediators of intercellular communication pathways that lead to tumor progression, and as potential sources for discovery of novel cancer biomarkers. For many years, research on EVs has mainly investigated either the mechanism of biogenesis and cargo selection and incorporation, or the methods of EV isolation from available body fluids for biomarker discovery. Recent studies have highlighted the existence of different populations of cancer-derived EVs, with distinct molecular cargo, thus pointing to the possibility that the various EV populations might play diverse roles in cancer and that this does not happen randomly. However, data attributing cancer specific intercellular functions to given populations of EVs are still limited. A deeper functional, biochemical and molecular characterization of the various EV classes might identify more selective clinical markers, and significantly advance our knowledge of the pathogenesis and disease progression of many cancer types.

KEYWORDS:

cancer; ectosomes; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; intercellular communication; large oncosomes; microvesicles; tumor microenvironment

PMID:
26861306
PMCID:
PMC4783909
DOI:
10.3390/ijms17020175
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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