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Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Feb 6;17(2):173. doi: 10.3390/ijms17020173.

Focus on Extracellular Vesicles: Exosomes and Their Role in Protein Trafficking and Biomarker Potential in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease.

Author information

1
The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia. ljvella@unimelb.edu.au.
2
Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia. andrew.hill@latrobe.edu.au.
3
Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia. l.cheng@latrobe.edu.au.

Abstract

Growing evidence indicates that small extracellular vesicles, called exosomes, are prominent mediators of neurodegenerative diseases such as prion, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Exosomes contain neurodegenerative disease associated proteins such as the prion protein, β-amyloid and α-synuclein. Only demonstrated so far in vivo with prion disease, exosomes are hypothesised to also facilitate the spread of β-amyloid and α-synuclein from their cells of origin to the extracellular environment. In the current review, we will discuss the role of exosomes in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease including their possible contribution to disease propagation and pathology and highlight their utility as a diagnostic in neurodegenerative disease.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; biomarkers; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; neurodegeneration; protein misfolding; protein trafficking

PMID:
26861304
PMCID:
PMC4783907
DOI:
10.3390/ijms17020173
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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