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Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Feb 6;17(2):172. doi: 10.3390/ijms17020172.

Focus on Extracellular Vesicles: Development of Extracellular Vesicle-Based Therapeutic Systems.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Pathology, Tokyo Medical University, 6-1-1 Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8402, Japan. s-ohno@tokyo-med.ac.jp.
2
Cellular Stress and Ageing Program, Bionanoscience and Bio-Imaging Program, Bio & Nano-Solutions, D-33647 Bielefeld, Germany. gpcdrummen@bionano-solutions.de.
3
Department of Molecular Pathology, Tokyo Medical University, 6-1-1 Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8402, Japan. kuroda@tokyo-med.ac.jp.

Abstract

Many types of cells release phospholipid membrane vesicles thought to play key roles in cell-cell communication, antigen presentation, and the spread of infectious agents. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) carry various proteins, messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and microRNAs (miRNAs), like a "message in a bottle" to cells in remote locations. The encapsulated molecules are protected from multiple types of degradative enzymes in body fluids, making EVs ideal for delivering drugs. This review presents an overview of the potential roles of EVs as natural drugs and novel drug-delivery systems.

KEYWORDS:

clinical trial; dexosome; drug delivery system; exosome; extracellular vesicle; microvesicle; outer membrane vesicle; stem cell; vaccine

PMID:
26861303
PMCID:
PMC4783906
DOI:
10.3390/ijms17020172
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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